How to Safely Select the Best Vitamins for Your Skin

On February 28, a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) likened vitamins A and beta carotene to death pills that can expedite your funeral date by as much as five percent. While this JAMA study may scare consumers away from the vitamin aisle, Harvard Medical School has issued a guide called “Vitamins and Minerals: What you Need to Know” to help take the danger and mystery out of supplement shopping.

Meier J. Stampfer, MD, PhD, a professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, edited the report. Highlights of the guide included the following tips:

Make sure supplements are USP verified

When shopping, choose supplements bearing the U.S. Pharmacopeia Dietary Supplement Verification Program (USP-DSVP) mark. The USP establishes public standards for good quality medicines, dietary supplements and related products used to maintain health and treat disease.

Don’t pay for marketing fluff:

According to the Harvard report, it doesn’t matter whether vitamin C is derived from organic rose hips or synthesized in large batches in a laboratory. Your body will use the resulting vitamin similarly.

Plus, if you’re not allergic to wheat, rice or lactose you don’t need to pay extra for allergen-free vitamins.

Watch out for medical dangerous interactions:

Inform your physician and pharmacists of all of the supplements you take to ensure that there are no potentially hazardous interactions between your medicines and the vitamins.

Verify vitamin benefits:

Before you spend $30 on a bottle of herbs or coenzyme Q10, make sure that rigorous, large scale studies validate the costs and effectiveness of the product.

Vitamins Proven to Benefit the Skin

Now that you know how to shop for vitamins, how do you know which vitamins and minerals are actually beneficial to the skin? Dermatologist Karen E. Burke, MD, observes that at least three antioxidants; selenium, vitamin E and vitamin C, are proven to decrease 먹튀검증 the effect of the sun on the skin and prevent further skin damage.

Selenium supports skin elasticity

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, selenium preserves tissue elasticity, and slows down the aging and hardening of tissues caused by oxidation. Also, oral supplements of 50 to 200 micrograms of selenium can protect the skin from damaging rays of the sun.

Moreover, a report in the February edition of Cancer Causes and Control reaffirmed the antioxidant properties of selenium and its ability to reduce certain incidences of cancer.

Vitamin E protects against skin damage

Like selenium, vitamin E also possesses cancer preventing properties. For example, a study released in Carcinogenesis demonstrated that vitamin E supplements could help protect against tumors caused by ultraviolet radiation exposure.

In the study, researchers provoked tumors in mice by exposing them to ultraviolet radiation. Investigators then gave the mice control meals or meals containing 62.5 international units of vitamin E per kilogram of body weight. Compared to the mice fed chow without vitamin E supplementation, the food with vitamin E reduced the tumor count in the mice by 30%.

Vitamin C promotes healthy skin growth

Similar to vitamin E, vitamin C repairs free radicals and prevents them from turning into cancers and accelerating aging. Vitamin C is the most abundant antioxidant found naturally in the skin and it helps the skin generate collagen. The protein collage comprises much of the skin.

A few years ago, researchers from Duke University examined the effect of vitamin C on the ability of skin cells to create collagen. In this study, researchers used skin cells from two age groups- newborns aged eight to three days old and elderly persons aged between 78 to 93 years old. In the cells not treated with vitamin C, the younger cells spurred more collagen growth than the elderly cells did.

Yet, once researchers added vitamin C to both sets of skin cells, the cells produced collagen at a faster rate in both groups. This led the investigators to conclude that vitamin C could help counteract the normal decline of collagen production in aged skin.

While the latest nutritional gossip may have you emptying all your skin supplements in the toilet, you may still want to keep selenium and vitamins E and C around. Nutrition is not only about how you absorb food, but how you act before, during and after you consume nutrients. May all your feedings, foods and supplements, fortify you.


Silvera, Stephanie & Thomas Rohan. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes and Control, Feb 2007, vol 18, no 1, pp. 7-27(21).

American Academy of Dermatology. Vitamins to protect against and reverse aging: The truth vs. the tall tales. 25 Feb 2002.

Coulter, Ian D. et al. Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Journal of General Internal Medicine, Jul 2006, vol 21, no 7, pp. A-7-A-7(1).

Uddin, Ahmed N. Vitamin E and organoselenium prevent the cocarcinogenic activity of arsenite with solar UVR in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis, Dec 2005, vol 26, no 12, pp. 2179-2186(8).

Phillips Charlotte L , Susan B Combs and Sheldon R Pinnell. Effects of ascorbic acid on proliferation and collagen synthesis in relation to the donor age of human dermal fibroblasts. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1994, no 103, pp 228–232.

Flat Belly Diet, What’s It All About?

The flat belly diet is the latest planned diet to hit the market and true to form, has been accompanied with the requisite number of marketing agents, book signings and promotional DVD special offers and one cannot help but feel a distinct sense of déjà vu in relation to the flat belly diet seeing as we have been subject to gimmick diet plans for as far back as the mind can stretch. Given that it is a newly founded plan, the jury is still out as to the relative worth of the program although it has been met with some mixed reviews from the experts.

A common stereotype that is associated with these gimmick diet plans is that they tend to pick a food type seemingly at random and then demonize it beyond all measure, treating it as if it were the dietary version of uranium or arsenic. These particular types of diet plans are exploiting a very cynical rule indeed: the enemy of my enemy is my friend.

The ancient emperor Caligula was renowned for finding assassination attempts and political dissidents among okinawa flat belly tonic the gentry of Rome with the Christians being especially firm favorites. The hapless victims served as nothing more than an object of ridicule, abuse and aggression upon which the plebs could vent their anger and there is more than a few hallmarks of Caligula’s actions with these diet plans as they arbitrarily choose a food type and ban it, or blame it for all your weight loss problems.

What makes the flat belly diet especially attractive is that moderation is a cardinal virtue within it, and so the dieter who is following the requirements of it does not need to contend with the dilemma of how to cope with the deprivation of their favorite treats, for the flat belly diet simply requires that they moderate consumption. Dieters are given a daily calorie sore which they should not exceed, but the manner in which they reach that score is entirely up to them.

However, the flat belly diet has drawn some criticism from medical professionals and nutritionists alike on the basis that it is potentially misleading consumers and dieters about the nature of the diet, as the diet seems to claim that it provides the only way to effectively remove belly fat directly. This is currently not possible, although there has been a great deal of research devoted to this topic.

Balance Your Energy With Yoga

From energy drinks to energy bars, energy is something sought by people each day. Everything is made up of energy. Energy is pulsation – a pulsation that moves in a wave-like rhythm flowing up and flowing down. We may think we need to grab for energy outside of us in order to have more energy inside to function. What we really need is to learn how to balance the energy that is pulsing within us. While it may seem easy and convenient to purchase an energy product on the way to work, consuming it as you sit in traffic, quick energy fixes only lead to crashes later on. Instead, balance your
energy with yoga a natural way to keep you invigorated throughout your day.

Practicing yoga is a great way to energize your day. Yoga helps release tension and clear blockages, allowing energy to flow freely, creating an overall sense of vitality and well-being. Yoga poses don’t create energy, they release energy and they also keep us from expending energy in activities that don’t do anything for us. Often we have so much tension stored in our bodies that we are forced to use our energy for support. If we can release that tension, we will be free to use this energy for whatever we really want to do.

Yoga helps you Manage Stress

Stress is a natural part of life’s pulsation. Stress can be motivating or disabling. Poor stress management drains energy out of the body, leaving you tired and unmotivated. Yoga helps you manage the accumulation of stress by helping you consciously release it. The mindfulness aspect of yoga trains the mind to focus on body sensations, to Blood balance formula and Blood balance advanced formula bring the body-mind back into synch. Naturally stress begins to rapidly diminish. Restoration and rejuvenation arise from the body’s ability to self-regulate as the mind-body duality diminishes.

Yoga Tones Muscles

Life is movement and movement is life – how we move can bring balance or imbalance to our muscle tone. The practice of connecting to your breath stimulates the body’s natural intelligence to move into alignment when performing yoga poses. Therefore, the integration in the body develops balanced muscle tone and increased energy.A person’s energy level is dictated by their metabolic rate, the rate at which their body is able to convert substances into energy. The expedience of this rate is based on
a person’s metabolism, a process that is contingent on their muscle mass; a person with more muscle tone will have a vastly higher metabolism than someone who has a small amount of muscle mass. In other words, a person with good muscle tone will have much more energy that someone whose muscular tone is minimal.

Yoga Stimulates Blood Flow

Yoga stimulates a person’s body into an open highway, unclogging avenues through which blood, oxygen, and nutrients – all elements of energy – can travel. The way yoga does this is by cultivating balanced action when performing yoga poses… Balanced action is when we engage enough muscular energy to create stability and strength in a pose balanced with organic energy, extension through the bones, to create freedom in the joints. The breath always leads the way- it is what fuels the vehicle of the body into contraction and expansion of the body’s natural pulsation.

Balanced action helps your body to become flexible. Because a person may have a restriction that they are unaware of, gaining flexibility helps energy get to its destination with ease. Breathing, along these lines, helps oxygenate the blood, helping drive the life force of energy to muscles, organs, and any part of the body that is need of some reserves.

Yoga is Vitality

Yoga provides a direct route for tapping into your true self: a self that, by nature, is fluid
and vital, not rigid and dull. All yoga postures are expressions of your true self. When
the postures are practiced with mindfulness and meaning they naturally shift you out of
a habitual negative rut or help you celebrate the joy that you brought to the mat. Yoga
brings self awareness to our habitual patterns that either support the expression of
one’s true heart or not. From this place of clarity we can then make life-affirming

People can find energy in many things – protein shakes, energy powders, even energy pills – but yoga remains one of the most natural and effective ways to balance the energy in your body, giving you the ability to make the most of each and every day.

Home Remedies For Yeast Infection – Finding a Quick Solution

There are many home remedies for yeast infection that have been handed down over the years. Some of them can be bought over the counter. Also a lot are available in articles and books that can be obtained online. Here are some important considerations.

If a doctor is consulted early in the onset of a yeast infection, this diagnosis may enable your adviser to prescribe medication which is not as strong as would be required for a more advanced case. In this instance a treatment which is obtained over the counter may well be adequate. These are available in the form of creams which can be applied locally to the infection or in a form such as a pill or elixir which can be taken orally.

More often doctors will advise a remedy that can be applied directly to the fungal infection as this starts to work immediately upon its application. As well, this form of treatment is likely to have fewer side effects than those remedies which are taken internally. In particular, there is less chance of an unwanted interaction with any other supplement or medication that is being taken.

The convenience of pills, tablets, lozenges and other treatments which act internally, and are swift and easy to apply, cannot be overlooked. It is also important to let your doctor know if there are keravita pro any unexpected or unusual reactions as a result of the prescribed treatment.

If it is decided to use a home remedy for yeast infection, here are a few that are well regarded :

1. Garlic Juice which is obtained from the crushed bulb and mixed with some aloe juice is considered to repel the infection whilst at the same time the mixture has a healing effect on skin tissue that may have been damaged. Adding aloe to garlic also tends to mask the smell of garlic juice as in its natural state garlic can be easily detected and this is not always desired.

2. Apple Cider Vinegar is also a common home remedy for yeast infection. This is not the same as white vinegar or that made from red wine. Apple cider vinegar has antitoxins which are believed to weaken the infection so that the body’s natural immunity to infections can function more effectively to eliminate the problem. This vinegar also contains vitamins which can help any damaged skin areas to restore health, balance and elasticity.

3. Controlling Sugar Intake. The fungus is known to thrive in conditions associated with high sugar levels, as is usually the case with those who suffer from diabetes or other defects with metabolizing sugar. As well foods, such as sweets, pastries and desserts, because of their sugar content, may aggravate the condition. Removing these from your diet can assist treatments aimed at controlling yeast infections.

4. Yogurt contains beneficial forms of yeast and this can be applied both internally and ingested as a special treat.

Although home remedies may be beneficial, it is wise to consult your physician before undertaking any self-prescribed treatment. This also helps to ensure that the existing condition doesn’t require stronger medication and that the ailment doesn’t develop further and spread. Also, this condition is infectious and can be spread by sexual contact.

If you decide to proceed with herbal or other home remedies for yeast infection, consulting a professional herbalist, naturopath, or homeopathic physician will enable you to find the best applications and learn how to use them.

Try These 5 Tinnitus Remedies to Help Ease Or Stop the Ringing in Your Ears!

Tinnitus is something completely personal and unique to everyone. A ringing in your ears or head which can just start suddenly or gradually increase. Tinnitus sufferers experience different noises at different times and for varying lengths of time. Some people find their tinnitus loud and continuous whilst others may not even know they have it. As there is no actual source of the sound, tinnitus is very  Tinnitus 911 difficult to measure. There are so many tinnitus remedies and alternative techniques to cure your tinnitus.

There are so many tinnitus remedies out there that it really is a matter of trying them all out and hoping you find one of the alternative techniques to cure your tinnitus. If you are tearing your hair out and feel like you have tried everything to stop the ringing in your ears, read the following tips and try them out or at least look into them a little more. You never know, one of these alternative techniques to cure your tinnitus!

  1. Minerals and herbal remedies. Some people take supplements such as zinc or magnesium to help relieve their tinnitus. Another popular herbal remedy for tinnitus is Ginkgo biloba, as are taking B vitamins which many people have found to cure tinnitus.
  2. Homeopathic tinnitus remedies. There are literally loads of homeopathic remedies depending on the symptoms of your tinnitus and I do not have enough space to list the causes and tinnitus remedies here. If you are interested in trying homeopathic remedies for tinnitus all you have to do is search online.
  3. Acupuncture. This is another popular remedy which people find to be very effective tinnitus relief for their tinnitus. However, many people note that the tinnitus relief is only temporary.
  4. Hypnosis. As tinnitus is almost always exacerbated by stress and anxiety, hypnosis is an effective treatment for helping people overcome their stress patterns. Hypnotherapy promotes well-being and when used in conjunction with other remedies has good results. One session of hypnotherapy will not do the trick though. You will need to have a course of hypnotherapy.
  5. Magnets. Some people say that using magnets to stimulate certain parts of the brain can help bring tinnitus relief. By placing magnets on the areas of the brain which have the highest blood flow (something thought to cause tinnitus) they hope to relieve the symptoms and stop the ringing in the ears.

Our tolerances to tinnitus are different so a tinnitus cure which helps one person may do nothing to help cure the next person with tinnitus. If you want to stop the ringing in your ears the first thing you should do is go to see your doctor. If your tinnitus is because of a build-up of wax in your ear then this can be easily removed and your tinnitus cured. Also, if you are taking medication be sure to check that none of them have tinnitus as a side effect. You doctor may be able to advise you of alternative techniques to cure your tinnitus.

Health Supplements For Diabetes

Diabetes maintenance can be extremely difficult for the patient, there are several different health supplements for diabetes which will help maintain insulin and blood sugar levels, if used in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise. Before beginning any new supplement, exercise program or diet- please consult with your physician. It’s a good idea to work with a physician to help maintain your insulin and blood sugar levels, and to help control diabetes in general. Diabetes can be deadly, so if at any point- regardless of whether you are using traditional medicine or alternative remedies- your symptoms worsen, then please contact your physician immediately! New, different, or an increase in symptoms could mean your condition is worsening.

As far as some general herbal health supplements for Reversirol diabetes, there are several out there that will help control blood sugar, insulin levels, and increase your body’s ability to properly use insulin. Chromium is a wonderful supplement, often used in the form of “chromium picolinate” for weight loss, but when used for supplementing for diabetes, Chromium makes your body’s cells more sensitive to insulin, which will help your body make proper use of insulin. A lot of people with Type 2 Diabetes have a chromium deficiency, which makes the symptoms of diabetes less once Chromium is started in most people.

Evening Primrose Oil is a good herbal remedy for one of the most common complications of diabetes, called “neuropathy.” When a person with diabetes has difficulty converting linoleic acid into GLA, circulation problems result because GLA deficiency causes less oxygen to reach the nerves in a person’s neurosystem. Evening Primrose oil helps with this because Evening Primrose oil is a direct source of GLA. It is for this reason that Evening Primrose Oil is one of the best health supplements for diabetes. It’s suspected that taking Evening Primrose Oil before symptoms of neuropathy caused by diabetes start, will actually help prevent diabetes-related neuropathy.

Other good herbal supplements include aloe vera (the juice or capsules containing aloe powder), antioxidants (commonly found in capsule or pill form, or even in tea form), burdock, biotin, coenzyme Q10, dandelion (found in tea or capsule/caplet form, most common is the tea form), DHEA, fiber, ginseng, l-carnitine, magnesium, onions, vitamins C and E. There are many health supplements for diabetes, and several of the herbal remedies have been known to be very effective. It’s just important to remember, before starting any kind of supplement or medication- whether herbal or traditional- consult with your physician and a naturopath before beginning any new supplements.

Just like traditional medications and treatments, herbal remedies can- and do- interact with one another and also with traditional medications. The best way to control diabetes is with your physician’s guidance, educating yourself, and by making sure you take care of your general over-all health and well-being. A balanced diet, exercise, and education are the best health suppliments for diabetes that there are. Follow the advice of your physician and/or a naturopath to determine which other supplements or herbal remedies are right for you.

The Advantages of Paying With Bitcoin

Since virtual currencies have a unique nature, they offer a lot of advantages over traditional currencies. Over the past few years, the world of digital currency is going through a lot of positive changes. There are a lot of cryptocurrencies, but Bitcoin is one of the most popular ones. In this article, we are going to take a look at some of the most prominent advantages of making payment with Bitcoin. Read on to find out more.

1. User Autonomy

For many users, digital currencies allow them a lot more freedom than conventional currency. People can have a better control on how they can spend their money. The good thing is that they don’t have to deal with an intermediary such as the government or bank.

2. Discretion

Another advantage is that things bought with Bitcoin are discrete. Only the user can publish their Bitcoin transactions. Plus, the transactions do not have their name next to them. Apart from this, these transactions are almost impossible to trace back.

As a matter of fact, each transaction has a different Bitcoin address. But that does not mean that these transactions are impossible to trace back. So, if you don’t want to let others know where bitcoin mixer you have spent your money, you can use cryptocurrencies to make payments.

3. Peer-to-Peer Focus

Another great advantage of the Bitcoin payment system is that it is based on peer-to-peer. In other words, users can receive and send payments without getting approval from any authority. Payments can be made within seconds as long as the user is connected to the internet.

4. No Banking Fees

Unlike the traditional fiat currencies, Bitcoin does not come with any deposit fees, overdraft charges or minimum balance fees. Therefore, you don’t have to worry about your account maintenance or balance fees.

5. Low Transaction Fees

Typically, foreign purchases and regular wire transfers come with exchange costs and fees. Since cryptocurrencies don’t require the involvement of government or any intermediary institutions, the transaction costs are quite low. If you are a traveler, this can be a great advantage for you. In addition, bitcoin transfers are very quick, which eliminates the need for authorization and long waiting periods.

6. Mobile Payments

Just like any online payment system, cryptocurrency uses can make payments through their mobile phones as long as they are connected to the internet. Therefore, they don’t have to travel to their bank to make a purchase. Moreover, you don’t need to show your personal identity in order to complete the transaction.

7. Accessibility

Sincere users can receive and send Bitcoin using their computer or smartphone, there is no need to involve a traditional bank or other authority. Plus, users don’t need to use their credit cards in order to make payments. So, Bitcoin allows more accessibility than other options you can try.

Casino US Information

Casino US takes its name from the country whose casinos are famous all over the world, USA. Even though its name is dedicated to USA, it welcomes players from other countries and accepts US dollar, Canadian dollar, Australian dollar, South African rand, and the pound and euro currencies. Casino US is a member of the reputable Vegas Partner Group and is licensed by Kahnawake Gaming Commission (KGC). It is affiliated to eCOBRA which is an industrial association initiated by Price Water Cooper and Micro-gaming.

The casino uses micro-gaming software for its games, which is one of the oldest and most reputable gaming software in the world. It uses the new Viper Micro-gaming software, which is the latest version and has many more new features than the old version of micro-gaming like auto play, game statistics, game strategies etc. The software provides the platform for huge collection of games with new games being added every now and then. Casino US has more than 200 games, which include traditional casino games and contemporary games. All the games are categorized under headings like table games, progressive jackpots, video poker, video slots and reel slots. The graphics and sound quality of the games are excellent which gives the feel of a real casino to the player. The rules of the games are easy to understand and simple to play and the navigation system provides for smooth transition from one game to another.

Casino US players have the option of choosing between two versions of the game – the flash version or the downloadable version. The flash version is beneficial for players whose computer are not situs casino compatible with the game software or have low speed internet connection. However, some games are not available in the flash version. Furthermore, the casino allows players to play for fun or with real money. New players who play with real money and sign up by opening an account in the casinos website are given free bonuses on the first time deposit made by them. The casino provides the players with 3 free bonus options:

· Free 300% matching bonus on a deposit of $10-$29 up to a maximum bonus of $30.

· Free 100% matching bonus on a deposit of $30-$284 up to a maximum bonus of $100.

· Free 35% matching bonus on a deposit of $285-$1000 up to a maximum bonus of $350.

Casino US provides several other promotion offers to all its casino players like

Casino US players can get free 15% matching bonus on every deposit they make up to a maximum limit of $3,000 every month.

The casino gives 30 free spins on The Osborne’s Video Slot. However the players have to make a minimum deposit of $20 in order to qualify for free spin offer and keep the winnings.The casino give $1776 worth of free play without any deposit or risk to its players. The players get 60 minutes of free play and a chance to keep the winnings too.However in order to claim the winnings a minimum deposit of $20 must be made on which the casino further gives a free bonus of $100. The casino has a 4 tier VIP program with various benefits to its members. Members have to collect lounge points in order to stay or move up in the tier system.

The casinos 24/7 customer support system provides all the help needed by the casino players in case of any technical or financial problem and queries of all other sort. The support system is provided via emails and phone (toll free no of US players is 888-652-3987).They have 10 language support addresses and 15 toll free numbers of different countries in order to cater to the needs of casino players from different parts of the world.

The Boeing PT-17 Stearman in Flight Over Massachusetts

Climbing over the narrow, wing-root walkway and stepping on to the cushioned seat of the tandem, two-place, blue and yellow fabric-covered open-cockpit Boeing PT-17 Stearman registered N55171 in Stow, Massachusetts, I lowered myself into position with the aid of the two upper wing trailing edge hand grips and fastened the olive-green waist and shoulder harnesses. Donning era-prerequisite goggles and helmet, I surveyed the fully duplicated instrumentation before me and prepared myself both for an aerial sightseeing fight of Massachusetts and a brief, although temporary, return to World War II primary flight training skies.

The Boeing PT-17 Stearman had its origins in a self-financed design project intended for military training purposes. Just beginning to see a flicker of light at the end of Great Depression’s tunnel and hitherto only surviving by manufacturing parts and components for other aircraft, primarily those for the Boeing B247 twin-engined airliner, the Stearman Aircraft Company believed that its future could only be secured with a military design.

Investing its own funds in 1933, it modified a Model 6 Cloudboy, an earlier Lloyd Stearman aircraft, by introducing a new, circular fuselage cross-section similar to that used by the Model 80, another Stearman design, providing only lower-wing ailerons, incorporating a cantilever undercarriage, and mounting a new tail with adjustable trims on the trailing edge of its elevators. Designated Model 70, it had first flown from Wichita, Kansas, on January 1, 1934 powered by a nine-cylinder, 210-hp, Lycoming R-680 radial engine, proving rugged, reliable, and well-suited to rigorous training regiments with the ability to tolerate the aerobatic maneuvers to which fledgling pilots often subjected it. Although it exhibited excellent handling characteristics during its demonstration flights to the Army Air Corps and the United States Navy in Dayton, Anacostia, and Pensacola, its almost docile response to stalls proved inadequate to fulfill its intended purpose; as a result, the installation steel bite pro of triangular stall strips, made of wood, on its lower wings severely interrupted the air flow during high attack angles and remedied the deficiency.

The Navy, the more interested of the two, ordered 41 aircraft, plus spares, in May of 1934 for a version with a 200-hp Wright J5 radial engine called the Model 73, but designated NS-1 for the Navy. The first production aircraft was rolled out in December of that year.

A modified version, incorporating a new main undercarriage and alternatively powered by a 225-hp Wright R-760 and an equally powered, nine-cylinder Lycoming R-680 radial engine, had been designed that summer and had been targeted toward the Army Air Corps. When funding had ultimately been allocated the following year, the Army Air Corps itself had issued specifications to the Stearman Aircraft Company, resulting in an order for 20, as well as spares, of the Lycoming version designated Model X75, but called the PT-13 for Army operation.

The two-seat primary training biplane design, identical to both operators with the exception of some minor features, incorporated a rectangular welded steel tube fuselage which had been covered with metal panels on its forward section and fabric on its aft end and rendered a 25-foot, ¼-inch overall length. Its single-bay, unequally spanned, staggered upper and lower wings, using an NACA 2213 wing section, were built up of spruce-laminated spars and ribs. The center section of its upper wing was carried by wire-braced steel tube struts, while “N”-type steel tube interplane struts carried it on either of its sides. Fabric-covered, they attained motion about its longitudinal axis by the duralumin ailerons installed on the trailing edge of its lower wings, and collectively featured a 32.2-foot span and a 297.4-square-foot area.

The fabric-covered, welded steel tube, wire-braced tailplane and vertical fin featured trim tabs on its elevators.

The divided, cantilever undercarriage, incorporating a metal fairing-enclosed, torque-resisting oleo spring shock absorber in each of its main legs, had been fitted with hydraulic wheel brakes and a steerable tail wheel.

The dual, tandem, open cockpits accommodated a flight instructor and a student pilot, and baggage could be stored in the enclosed compartment behind the rear of the two.

Powered by a twin-bladed, adjustable-pitch, metal propeller mounted on a steel tube whose radial engine was fed by a center-section, 43 US gallon fuel tank and a four US gallon oil tank installed in the engine compartment itself, the aircraft, with a 1,936-pound empty weight and 2,717-pound gross eight, could climb at 840 feet-per-minute, attaining a maximum 124-mph speed and an 11,200-foot service ceiling. Range was 505 miles. Cruise speed, at a 65-percent power setting, was 106 mph, while landing speed was a docile 52 mph.

World War II’s momentum had both paralleled and dictated the aircraft’s production run. The war department’s increasing need for primary trainers resulted in the $243,578 order for 26 PT-13As for the Army Air Corps and the $150,373 order for 20 for the Navy, while a subsequent, $3 million order for PT-13Bs represented the highest in Stearman’s history and necessitated the expansion of its factory and the increase of its workforce to a hitherto record 1,000.

In addition to the United States, the design equally had foreign application. The Model 76D1, for instance, featured a nine-cylinder, 320-hp, twin-bladed, adjustable prop Pratt and Whitney R-985-T1B engine, three.30 caliber machine guns, a two-way radio, and floats, and ten were initially ordered by the Argentine Navy. The Model 73L3, featuring a 225-hp Lycoming R-680-4 engine, was flown in the Philippines, and the aircraft also saw service in Brazil.

Indeed, by 1940, Stearman produced one PT-13-type trainer every 90 minutes, and the momentum, once set in motion, had been unarrestable. On June 25 of that year, the Navy signed a $3.8 million contract for 215-hp Lycoming R-680-8-powered N2S-2s and -5s, sparking another 40,000-square-foot factory expansion. By August, 1,100 personnel worked two eight-hour shifts six days per week, while the following month 1,400 worked round the clock on three daily eight-hour shifts.

How to Generate Tons of Traffic to Your Site by Using Public Domain Publishing

It’s a problem every internet marketer faces on a daily basis. You may have the best website in your niche market, you may have high quality products at bargain prices, you may have spent time, effort and money getting your site out there, but without traffic, it’s all pointmess!

So one of the important issues debated through countless blog posts, forum discussion groups and slick ‘solution based marketing’ gurus is this: ‘how do I get people to visit my site?’

One of the most successful ways of getting traffic to your site is to create hundreds of backlinks from other website pointing back to your sales page. So article writing, regular blog posts, joining in debates on forums and discussion groups, social networking and linking to social bookmarking sites are all great ways of creating backlinks. Of course, you need good quality material for your articles and these can be obtained by using works in the public domain that refer to your chosen niche. Apart from the time and effort involved, this method is highly cost effective.

Make Sure Your Content Is Original

In order to rank high in the search engines you need lots of original content. This drives the little bots wild with excitement and if you update your content regularly, they will have a party! If won’t happen overnight, so be patient. But this is definitely one of the best ways to get your site noticed and your products out there. Having good keywords dotted around your articles and blogposts is also crucial because  quietum plus these will also be picked up by the search engine bots. At one time the use of metatags was the big rage. That’s when you place your keys words in the HTML code of all your web pages. However, the bots are far more interested in relevant and original content placed on your site.

Even though it is perfectly legal to use works you get from the public domain as is, that is, without changing or updating them, in the long run, it won’t be very useful. Let’s be honest, there are a lot of lazy internet marketers who think they are going to become instantly rich by simply publishing duplicate content on the internet. Either they are naive or crazy, because the bots know all about our funny ways and pick up duplicate content in no time at all subsequently removing your pages from the search engine’s index. That’s why it is crucial that you make public domain content your own, that is, you tweak it, update it, add your own content, that is, make it unique.

Article Marketing

You can tweak public domain books or other writings and get dozens of articles that you can then submit to article directories. With a link back to your site in the resource box, you’ll undoubtedly drive massive traffic to your site using this method. Think quality, though. If your articles sound just like every other article posted on the article directories, no one will read far enough to get to the resource box.

While writing articles from material culled from the public domain is easier than writing them from scratch, you still want to do your best work, so spend time editing, rewriting, suplementing and using personal illustrations to support your work.

Post Articles at Revenue Sharing Sites

You can also post articles at revenue sharing sites that you get from information you cull from the public domain. Not all of them will let you post links but most of them have a profile page or resource box that you can use to point visitors back to your site. In addition, with some of these sites, you can build up quite a bit in passive income once you have a large amount of articles on the site. Again, make these articles unique and interesting. Just one public domain book could net you dozens and dozens of articles that could earn you big money!